Vacuum Electronics Chronology
1884 Edwin Houston. discussed the Edison effect, a curious trickle of current through the lamps that was to become the physical basis of electron tubes.
1905 John Ambrose Fleming employed this effect in his “oscillation valve,” which served as a detector of wireless transmissions.
1906 Lee De Forest invented the Triode vacuum tube amplifier.
1912 In America, Lee de Forest and Reginald Fessenden used the triode vacuum tube amplifier to function as an amplifier in radio.
1916 Walter Schottky patented the “screen” grid.
1920 The term “electronics” emerged to defined the new science field.
1920 H. Barkhausen and K. Kurz invented the Retarded Field Tube, the first transit time tube.
1921 A. Hull invented the Magnetron.
1923 The “double-grid” Philips type Q.
1926 S. G. Holst and B. Tellegen invented the Pentode.
1935 Magnetrons with multisegment anodes (which, in fact, appear as closed-loop slow-wave structures) were proposed by K. Posthumus.
1937 Sigurd and Russell Varian working at Stanford University invented the Klystron
1938 The first Conference on Electron Tubes, held at the Pennsylvania Hotel in New York.
1938 N. F. Alekseev and D. D. Malairov developed a prototype of the modern cavity magnetron with a copper anode and hole-slot resonators.
1940 Henry Boot and John Randall invented the Resonant Cavity Magnetron.
1940 The MIT Radiation Laboratory developed comprehensive radar systems with the cavity magnetron as the core element.
1943 Rudolf Kompfner invented the Traveling-Wave Tube, at Birmingham in 1943.
1943 Charles Litton patented Multistage Depressed-Collector (MSDC).
1947 John Pierce developed a working theory of TWT operation, based on the interaction between an electron beam and slower electromagnetic waves traveling within the tube.
1950 Undulator production of radiation by H. Motz.
1952 BWO was invented by R. Kompfner.
1952 Epsztein invented a Backward-Wave Oscillator of M-type, the carcinotron.
1953 CFAs were invented by Brown under the name platinotron.
1954 Maser invented by J.P. Gordon.
1954 Invention of Gyrotron by M. Petelin at Nizhny Novograd
1957 Invention of the Ubitron/FEL by R.M. Phillips
1959 Theory for Gyroton from R. Q. Twiss and J. Schneider.
1960 Traveling-wave tubes for satellite communications first used in Echo and Telstar satellites.
1964 Nizhny Novgorod invented the Gyrotrons.
1967 Girocon, that introduced the working principle of the Magnicon, invented by G.I. Budker.
1969 Orotron invented by Rusin and Bogomolov.
1977 Flyagin, Gaponov, Petelin and Yulpatov invented the modern Gyrotrons.